Possible Digital Disruptions by Cyber Actors in USA Electoral Cycle

Some possible electronic disruptions  that threaten to disrupt the electoral cycle in United States of America currently underway is-

1) Limited Denial of Service Attacks (like for 5-8 minutes) on fund raising websites, trying to fly under the radar of network administrators to deny the targeted  fundraising website for a small percentage of funds . Money remains critical to the world’s most expensive political market. Even a 5% dropdown in online fund-raising capacity can cripple a candidate.

2)  Limited Man of the Middle  Attacks on ground volunteers to disrupt ,intercept and manipulate communication flows. Basically cyber attacks at vulnerable ground volunteers in critical counties /battleground /swing states (like Florida)

3) Electro-Magnetic Disruptions of Electronic Voting Machines in critical counties /swing states (like Florida) to either disrupt, manipulate or create an impression that some manipulation has been done.

4) Use search engine flooding (for search engine de-optimization of rival candidates keywords), and social media flooding for disrupting the listening capabilities of sentiment analysis.

5) Selected leaks (including using digital means to create authetntic, fake or edited collateral) timed to embarrass rivals or influence voters , this can be geo-coded and mass deployed.

6) using Internet communications to selectively spam or influence independent or opinionated voters through emails, short messaging service , chat channels, social media.

7) Disrupt the Hillary for President 2016 campaign by Anonymous-Wikileak sympathetic hacktivists.



Data Quality in R #rstats

Many Data Quality Formats give problems when importing in your statistical software.A statistical software is quite unable to distingush between $1,000, 1000% and 1,000 and 1000 and will treat the former three as character variables while the third as a numeric variable by default. This issue is further compounded by the numerous ways we can represent date-time variables.

The good thing is for specific domains like finance and web analytics, even these weird data input formats are fixed, so we can fix up a list of handy data quality conversion functions in R for reference.


After much muddling about with coverting internet formats (or data used in web analytics) (mostly time formats without date like 00:35:23)  into data frame numeric formats, I found that the way to handle Date-Time conversions in R is

Dataset$Var2= strptime(as.character(Dataset$Var1),”%M:%S”)

The problem with this approach is you will get the value as a Date Time format (02/31/2012 04:00:45-  By default R will add today’s date to it.)  while you are interested in only Time Durations (4:00:45 or actually just the equivalent in seconds).

this can be handled using the as.difftime function


or to get purely numeric values so we can do numeric analysis (like summary)


(#Maybe there is  a more elegant way here- but I dont know)

The kind of data is usually one we get in web analytics for average time on site , etc.







for factor variables

Dataset$Var2= as.numeric(as.character(Dataset$Var1))



Dataset$Var2= as.numeric(paste(Dataset$Var1))


Slight problem is suppose there is data like 1,504 – it will be converted to NA instead of 1504

The way to solve this is use the nice gsub function ONLy on that variable. Since the comma is also the most commonly used delimiter , you dont want to replace all the commas, just only the one in that variable.




Now lets assume we have data in the form of % like 0.00% , 1.23%, 3.5%

again we use the gsub function to replace the % value in the string with  (nothing).





If you simply do the following for a factor variable, it will show you the level not the value. This can create an error when you are reading in CSV data which may be read as character or factor data type.

Dataset$Var2= as.numeric(Dataset$Var1)

An additional way is to use substr (using substr( and concatenate (using paste) for manipulating string /character variables.


iris$sp=substr(iris$Species,1,3) –will reduce the famous Iris species into three digits , without losing any analytical value.

The other issue is with missing values, and na.rm=T helps with getting summaries of numeric variables with missing values, we need to further investigate how suitable, na.omit functions are for domains which have large amounts of missing data and need to be treated.



Happy $100 Billion to Mark Zuckerberg Productions !

Heres to an expected $100 billion market valuation to the latest Silicon Valley Legend, Facebook- A Mark Zuckerberg Production.

Some milestones that made FB what it is-

1) Beating up MySpace, Ibibo, Google Orkut combined

2) Smart timely acquisitions from Friend feed , to Instagram

3) Superb infrastructure for 900 million accounts, fast interface rollouts, and a policy of never deleting data. Some of this involved creating new technology like Cassandra. There have been no anti-trust complaints against FB’s behavior particularly as it simply stuck to being the cleanest interface offering a social network

4) Much envied and copied features like Newsfeed, App development on the FB platform, Social Gaming as revenue streams

5) Replacing Google as the hot techie employer, just like Google did to Microsoft.

6) An uncanny focus, including walking away from a billion dollars from Yahoo,resisting Google, Apple’s Ping, imposing design changes unilaterally, implementing data sharing only with flexible partners  and strategic investors (like Bing)

FB has made more money for more people than any other company in the past ten years. Here’s wishing it an even more interesting next ten years! With 900 million users if they could integrate a PayPal like system, or create an alternative to Adsense for content creators, they could create an all new internet economy – one which is more open than the Google dominated internet ; 0


How to learn Hacking Part 2

Now that you have read the basics here at http://www.decisionstats.com/how-to-learn-to-be-a-hacker-easily/ (please do read this before reading the below)


Here is a list of tutorials that you should study (in order of ease)

1) LEARN BASICS – enough to get you a job maybe if that’s all you wanted.



Lena’s Reverse Engineering Tutorial-“Use Google.com  for finding the Tutorial

Lena’s Reverse Engineering tutorial. It includes 36 parts of individual cracking techniques and will teach you the basics of protection bypassing

01. Olly + assembler + patching a basic reverseme
02. Keyfiling the reverseme + assembler
03. Basic nag removal + header problems
04. Basic + aesthetic patching
05. Comparing on changes in cond jumps, animate over/in, breakpoints
06. “The plain stupid patching method”, searching for textstrings
07. Intermediate level patching, Kanal in PEiD
08. Debugging with W32Dasm, RVA, VA and offset, using LordPE as a hexeditor
09. Explaining the Visual Basic concept, introduction to SmartCheck and configuration
10. Continued reversing techniques in VB, use of decompilers and a basic anti-anti-trick
11. Intermediate patching using Olly’s “pane window”
12. Guiding a program by multiple patching.
13. The use of API’s in software, avoiding doublechecking tricks
14. More difficult schemes and an introduction to inline patching
15. How to study behaviour in the code, continued inlining using a pointer
16. Reversing using resources
17. Insights and practice in basic (self)keygenning
18. Diversion code, encryption/decryption, selfmodifying code and polymorphism
19. Debugger detected and anti-anti-techniques
20. Packers and protectors : an introduction
21. Imports rebuilding
22. API Redirection
23. Stolen bytes
24. Patching at runtime using loaders from lena151 original
25. Continued patching at runtime & unpacking armadillo standard protection
26. Machine specific loaders, unpacking & debugging armadillo
27. tElock + advanced patching
28. Bypassing & killing server checks
29. Killing & inlining a more difficult server check
30. SFX, Run Trace & more advanced string searching
31. Delphi in Olly & DeDe
32. Author tricks, HIEW & approaches in inline patching
33. The FPU, integrity checks & loader versus patcher
34. Reversing techniques in packed software & a S&R loader for ASProtect
35. Inlining inside polymorphic code
36. Keygenning

If you want more free training – hang around this website


OWASP Cheat Sheet Series

Draft OWASP Cheat Sheets



Course overview

Module 1 – The x86 environment

  • System Architecture
  • Windows Memory Management
  • Registers
  • Introduction to Assembly
  • The stack

Module 2 – The exploit developer environment

  • Setting up the exploit developer lab
  • Using debuggers and debugger plugins to gather primitives

Module 3 – Saved Return Pointer Overwrite

  • Functions
  • Saved return pointer overwrites
  • Stack cookies

Module 4 – Abusing Structured Exception Handlers

  • Abusing exception handler overwrites
  • Bypassing Safeseh

Module 5 – Pointer smashing

  • Function pointers
  • Data/object pointers
  • vtable/virtual functions

Module 6 – Off-by-one and integer overflows

  • Off-by-one
  • Integer overflows

Module 7 – Limited buffers

  • Limited buffers, shellcode splitting

Module 8 – Reliability++ & reusability++

  • Finding and avoiding bad characters
  • Creative ways to deal with character set limitations

Module 9 – Fun with Unicode

  • Exploiting Unicode based overflows
  • Writing venetian alignment code
  • Creating and Using venetian shellcode

Module 10 – Heap Spraying Fundamentals

  • Heap Management and behaviour
  • Heap Spraying for Internet Explorer 6 and 7

Module 11 – Egg Hunters

  • Using and tweaking Egg hunters
  • Custom egghunters
  • Using Omelet egghunters
  • Egghunters in a WoW64 environment

Module 12 – Shellcoding

  • Building custom shellcode from scratch
  • Understanding existing shellcode
  • Writing portable shellcode
  • Bypassing Antivirus

Module 13 – Metasploit Exploit Modules

  • Writing exploits for the Metasploit Framework
  • Porting exploits to the Metasploit Framework

Module 14 – ASLR

  • Bypassing ASLR

Module 15 – W^X

  • Bypassing NX/DEP
  • Return Oriented Programming / Code Reuse (ROP) )

Module 16 – Advanced Heap Spraying

  • Heap Feng Shui & heaplib
  • Precise heap spraying in modern browsers (IE8 & IE9, Firefox 13)

Module 17 – Use After Free

  • Exploiting Use-After-Free conditions

Module 18 – Windows 8

  • Windows 8 Memory Protections and Bypass

ALSO GET CERTIFIED http://www.offensive-security.com/information-security-training/penetration-testing-with-backtrack/ ($950 cost)

the syllabus is here at



At http://attrition.org/attrition/

or The Noir  Hat Conferences-


or read this website



Yes it is possible


See http://web.jhu.edu/jhuisi/

The Johns Hopkins University Information Security Institute (JHUISI) is the University’s focal point for research and education in information security, assurance and privacy.

Scholarship Information


The Information Security Institute is now accepting applications for the Department of Defense’s Information Assurance Scholarship Program (IASP).  This scholarship includes full tuition, a living stipend, books and health insurance. In return each student recipient must work for a DoD agency at a competitive salary for six months for every semester funded. The scholarship is open to American citizens only.



The flagship educational experience offered by Johns Hopkins University in the area of information security and assurance is represented by the Master of Science in Security Informatics degree.  Over thirty courses are available in support of this unique and innovative graduate program.


Disclaimer- I havent done any of these things- This is just a curated list from Quora  so I am open to feedback.

You use this at your own risk of conscience ,local legal jurisdictions and your own legal liability.







April Fool's Day- Catblock!

Since Anonymous didnt disrupt the internet on April Fools Day by overloading the DNS Servers! , the best April Fool’s day imho goes to Adblock- that  nifty extension that allows you to block ads.

Well for today- it replaced ads with funny cats- and you can even buy the cats for ads extension  permanently. That’s right cats take over the Internet!

Only 2% of Chrome and Firefox users block ads! so what are you waiting for- this is how the NYTimes looks for me!!


Replace ads with cats-

for chrome here-


for firefox here-


read more on catblock here-


but if you want to buy catblock—

see this



send email by R

For automated report delivery I have often used send email options in BASE SAS. For R, for scheduling tasks and sending me automated mails on completion of tasks I have two R options and 1 Windows OS scheduling option. Note red font denotes the parameters that should be changed. Anything else should NOT be changed.

Option 1-

Use the mail package at


> library(mail)

Attaching package: ‘mail’

The following object(s) are masked from ‘package:sendmailR’:


> sendmail(“ohri2007@gmail.com“, subject=”Notification from R“,message=“Calculation finished!”, password=”rmail”)
[1] “Message was sent to ohri2007@gmail.com! You have 19 messages left.”

Disadvantage- Only 20 email messages by IP address per day. (but thats ok!)

Option 2-

use sendmailR package at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/sendmailR/sendmailR.pdf

from <- sprintf(“<sendmailR@%s>”, Sys.info()[4])
to <- “<ohri2007@gmail.com>”
subject <- “Hello from R
body <- list(“It works!”, mime_part(iris))
sendmail(from, to, subject, body,control=list(smtpServer=”ASPMX.L.GOOGLE.COM”))



BiocInstaller version 1.2.1, ?biocLite for help
> install.packages(“sendmailR”)
Installing package(s) into ‘/home/ubuntu/R/library’
(as ‘lib’ is unspecified)
also installing the dependency ‘base64’

trying URL ‘http://cran.at.r-project.org/src/contrib/base64_1.1.tar.gz&#8217;
Content type ‘application/x-gzip’ length 61109 bytes (59 Kb)
opened URL
downloaded 59 Kb

trying URL ‘http://cran.at.r-project.org/src/contrib/sendmailR_1.1-1.tar.gz&#8217;
Content type ‘application/x-gzip’ length 6399 bytes
opened URL
downloaded 6399 bytes

BiocInstaller version 1.2.1, ?biocLite for help
* installing *source* package ‘base64’ …
** package ‘base64’ successfully unpacked and MD5 sums checked
** libs
gcc -std=gnu99 -I/usr/local/lib64/R/include -I/usr/local/include -fpic -g -O2 -c base64.c -o base64.o
gcc -std=gnu99 -shared -L/usr/local/lib64 -o base64.so base64.o -L/usr/local/lib64/R/lib -lR
installing to /home/ubuntu/R/library/base64/libs
** R
** preparing package for lazy loading
** help
*** installing help indices
** building package indices …
** testing if installed package can be loaded
BiocInstaller version 1.2.1, ?biocLite for help

* DONE (base64)
BiocInstaller version 1.2.1, ?biocLite for help
* installing *source* package ‘sendmailR’ …
** package ‘sendmailR’ successfully unpacked and MD5 sums checked
** R
** preparing package for lazy loading
** help
*** installing help indices
** building package indices …
** testing if installed package can be loaded
BiocInstaller version 1.2.1, ?biocLite for help

* DONE (sendmailR)

The downloaded packages are in
> library(sendmailR)
Loading required package: base64
> from <- sprintf(“<sendmailR@%s>”, Sys.info()[4])
> to <- “<ohri2007@gmail.com>”
> subject <- “Hello from R”
> body <- list(“It works!”, mime_part(iris))
> sendmail(from, to, subject, body,
+ control=list(smtpServer=”ASPMX.L.GOOGLE.COM”))
[1] “221”

[1] “2.0.0 closing connection ff2si17226764qab.40”

Disadvantage-This worked when I used the Amazon Cloud using the BioConductor AMI (for free 2 hours) at http://www.bioconductor.org/help/cloud/

It did NOT work when I tried it use it from my Windows 7 Home Premium PC from my Indian ISP (!!) .

It gave me this error

or in wait_for(250) :
SMTP Error: 5.7.1 [] The IP you’re using to send mail is not authorized



ps Why do this (send email by R)?

Note you can add either of the two programs of the end of the code that you want to be notified automatically. (like daily tasks)

This is mostly done for repeated business analytics tasks (like reports and analysis that need to be run at specific periods of time)

pps- What else can I do with this?

Can be modified to include sms or tweets  or even blog by email by modifying the   “to”  location appropriately.

3) Using Windows Task Scheduler to run R codes automatically (either the above)

or just sending an email

got to Start>  All Programs > Accessories >System Tools > Task Scheduler ( or by default C:Windowssystem32taskschd.msc)

Create a basic task

Now you can use this to run your daily/or scheduled R code  or you can send yourself email as well.

and modify the parameters- note the SMTP server (you can use the ones for google in example 2 at ASPMX.L.GOOGLE.COM)

and check if it works!



 Geeky Things , Bro

Configuring IIS on your Windows 7 Home Edition-

note path to do this is-

Control Panel>All Control Panel Items> Program and Features>Turn Windows features on or off> Internet Information Services




Using R for Cloud Computing – made very easy and free by BioConductor

I really liked the no hassles way Biocnoductor has put a cloud AMI loaded with RStudio to help people learn R, and even try using R from within a browser in the cloud.

Not only is the tutorial very easy to use- they also give away 2 hours for free computing!!!

Check it out-

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

and wow! I am using Google Chrome to run R ..and its awesome!

Interesting- check out two hours for free — all you need is a browser and internet connection