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and an additional 750 hours /month of Linux based computing. The windows instance is really quite easy for users to start getting the hang of cloud computing. and it is quite useful for people to tinker around, given Google’s retail cloud offerings are taking so long to hit the market
But it is only for new users.
WS Free Usage Tier now Includes Microsoft Windows on EC2
The AWS Free Usage Tier now allows you to run Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 on an EC2 t1.micro instance for up to 750 hours per month. This benefit is open to new AWS customers and to those who are already participating in the Free Usage Tier, and is available in all AWS Regions with the exception of GovCloud. This is an easy way for Windows users to start learning about and enjoying the benefits of cloud computing with AWS.
The micro instances provide a small amount of consistent processing power and the ability to burst to a higher level of usage from time to time. You can use this instance to learn about Amazon EC2, support a development and test environment, build an AWS application, or host a web site (or all of the above). We’ve fine-tuned the micro instances to make them even better at running Microsoft Windows Server.
You can launch your instance from the AWS Management Console:
We have lots of helpful resources to get you started:
- An updated (and even more helpful) Amazon EC2 Microsoft Windows Guide.
- Getting Started Guide: Web Application Hosting for Microsoft Windows.
- The Getting Started Guide includes a new section on Deploying a WordPress Blog.
- Our Windows and .NET Developer Center.
- A brand new AWS Microsite, with a focus on running Windows on Amazon EC2.
- Additional documentation on the AWS free usage tier, including eligibility information and some tips for making the most of it.
Along with 750 instance hours of Windows Server 2008 R2 per month, the Free Usage Tier also provides another 750 instance hours to run Linux (also on a t1.micro), Elastic Load Balancer time and bandwidth, Elastic Block Storage, Amazon S3 Storage, and SimpleDB storage, a bunch of Simple Queue Service and Simple Notification Service requests, and some CloudWatch metrics and alarms (see the AWS Free Usage Tier page for details). We’ve also boosted the amount of EBS storage space offered in the Free Usage Tier to 30GB, and we’ve doubled the I/O requests in the Free Usage Tier, to 2 million.
Basically a bar chart shows rectangular bars with length proportional to the quantities being described. It helps to see relative quantities between various category types.
The barplot() command is used for making Bar Plots, while hist() is used for histograms. You can also use the plot() command with type=h to create histograms-The official R manual also suggests that Dot plots using dotchart () are a reasonable substitute for bar plots.
A very simple easy to understand tutorial for basic bar plots is at http://msenux.redwoods.edu/math/R/barplot.php
The difference between the three main functions that can be used for these charts are shown below-
Rural Male Rural Female Urban Male Urban Female
50-54 11.7 8.7 15.4 8.4
55-59 18.1 11.7 24.3 13.6
60-64 26.9 20.3 37.0 19.3
65-69 41.0 30.9 54.6 35.1
70-74 66.0 54.3 71.1 50.0
R has almost 2923 available packages
This makes the task of searching among these packages and comparing functions for the same analytical task across different packages a bit tedious and prone to manual searching (of reading multiple Pdfs of help /vignette of packages) or sending an email to the R help list.
However using R Views is a slightly better way of managing all your analytical requirements for software rather than the large number of packages (see Graphics view below).
CRAN Task Views allow you to browse packages by topic and provide tools to automatically install all packages for special areas of interest. Currently, 28 views are available. http://cran.r-project.org/web/views/
Bayesian Bayesian Inference ChemPhys Chemometrics and Computational Physics ClinicalTrials Clinical Trial Design, Monitoring, and Analysis Cluster Cluster Analysis & Finite Mixture Models Distributions Probability Distributions Econometrics Computational Econometrics Environmetrics Analysis of Ecological and Environmental Data ExperimentalDesign Design of Experiments (DoE) & Analysis of Experimental Data Finance Empirical Finance Genetics Statistical Genetics Graphics Graphic Displays & Dynamic Graphics & Graphic Devices & Visualization gR gRaphical Models in R HighPerformanceComputing High-Performance and Parallel Computing with R MachineLearning Machine Learning & Statistical Learning MedicalImaging Medical Image Analysis Multivariate Multivariate Statistics NaturalLanguageProcessing Natural Language Processing OfficialStatistics Official Statistics & Survey Methodology Optimization Optimization and Mathematical Programming Pharmacokinetics Analysis of Pharmacokinetic Data Phylogenetics Phylogenetics, Especially Comparative Methods Psychometrics Psychometric Models and Methods ReproducibleResearch Reproducible Research Robust Robust Statistical Methods SocialSciences Statistics for the Social Sciences Spatial Analysis of Spatial Data Survival Survival Analysis TimeSeries Time Series Analysis
To automatically install these views, the ctv package needs to be installed, e.g., via
and then the views can be installed via install.views or update.views (which first assesses which of the packages are already installed and up-to-date), e.g.,install.views("Econometrics") update.views("Econometrics") Created by Pretty R at inside-R.org
CRAN Task View: Graphic Displays & Dynamic Graphics & Graphic Devices & Visualization
|Contact:||nikko at hailmail.net|
R is rich with facilities for creating and developing interesting graphics. Base R contains functionality for many plot types including coplots, mosaic plots, biplots, and the list goes on. There are devices such as postscript, png, jpeg and pdf for outputting graphics as well as device drivers for all platforms running R. lattice and grid are supplied with R’s recommended packages and are included in every binary distribution. lattice is an R implementation of William Cleveland’s trellis graphics, while grid defines a much more flexible graphics environment than the base R graphics.
R’s base graphics are implemented in the same way as in the S3 system developed by Becker, Chambers, and Wilks. There is a static device, which is treated as a static canvas and objects are drawn on the device through R plotting commands. The device has a set of global parameters such as margins and layouts which can be manipulated by the user using par() commands. The R graphics engine does not maintain a user visible graphics list, and there is no system of double buffering, so objects cannot be easily edited without redrawing a whole plot. This situation may change in R 2.7.x, where developers are working on double buffering for R devices. Even so, the base R graphics can produce many plots with extremely fine graphics in many specialized instances.
One can quickly run into trouble with R’s base graphic system if one wants to design complex layouts where scaling is maintained properly on resizing, nested graphs are desired or more interactivity is needed. grid was designed by Paul Murrell to overcome some of these limitations and as a result packages like lattice, ggplot2, vcd or hexbin (on Bioconductor ) use grid for the underlying primitives. When using plots designed with grid one needs to keep in mind that grid is based on a system of viewports and graphic objects. To add objects one needs to use grid commands, e.g., grid.polygon() rather than polygon(). Also grid maintains a stack of viewports from the device and one needs to make sure the desired viewport is at the top of the stack. There is a great deal of explanatory documentation included with grid as vignettes.
The graphics packages in R can be organized roughly into the following topics, which range from the more user oriented at the top to the more developer oriented at the bottom. The categories are not mutually exclusive but are for the convenience of presentation:
- Plotting : Enhancements for specialized plots can be found in plotrix, for polar plotting, vcd for categorical data, hexbin (on Bioconductor ) for hexagon binning, gclus for ordering plots and gplots for some plotting enhancements. Some specialized graphs, like Chernoff faces are implemented in aplpack, which also has a nice implementation of Tukey’s bag plot. For 3D plots lattice, scatterplot3d and misc3d provide a selection of plots for different kinds of 3D plotting. scatterplot3d is based on R’s base graphics system, while misc3d is based on rgl. The package onion for visualizing quaternions and octonions is well suited to display 3D graphics based on derived meshes.
- Graphic Applications : This area is not much different from the plotting section except that these packages have tools that may not for display, but can aid in creating effective displays. Also included are packages with more esoteric plotting methods. For specific subject areas, like maps, or clustering the excellent task views contributed by other dedicated useRs is an excellent place to start.
- Effect ordering : The gclus package focuses on the ordering of graphs to accentuate cluster structure or natural ordering in the data. While not for graphics directly cba and seriation have functions for creating 1 dimensional orderings from higher dimensional criteria. For ordering an array of displays, biclust can be useful.
- Large Data Sets : Large data sets can present very different challenges from moderate and small datasets. Aside from overplotting, rendering 1,000,000 points can tax even modern GPU’s. For univariate datalvplot produces letter value boxplots which alleviate some of the problems that standard boxplots exhibit for large data sets. For bivariate data ash can produce a bivariate smoothed histogram very quickly, and hexbin, on Bioconductor , can bin bivariate data onto a hexagonal lattice, the advantage being that the irregular lines and orientation of hexagons do not create linear artifacts. For multivariate data, hexbin can be used to create a scatterplot matrix, combined with lattice. An alternative is to use scagnostics to produce a scaterplot matrix of “data about the data”, and look for interesting combinations of variables.
- Trees and Graphs : ape and ade4 have functions for plotting phylogenetic trees, which can be used for plotting dendrograms from clustering procedures. While these packages produce decent graphics, they do not use sophisticated algorithms for node placement, so may not be useful for very large trees. igraph has the Tilford-Rheingold algorithm implementead and is useful for plotting larger trees. diagram as facilities for flow diagrams and simple graphs. For more sophisticated graphs Rgraphviz and igraph have functions for plotting and layout, especially useful for representing large networks.
- Graphics Systems : lattice is built on top of the grid graphics system and is an R implementation of William Cleveland’s trellis system for S-PLUS. lattice allows for building many types of plots with sophisticated layouts based on conditioning. ggplot2 is an R implementation of the system described in “A Grammar of Graphics” by Leland Wilkinson. Like lattice, ggplot (also built on top of grid) assists in trellis-like graphics, but allows for much more. Since it is built on the idea of a semantics for graphics there is much more emphasis on reshaping data, transformation, and assembling the elements of a plot.
- Devices : Whereas grid is built on top of the R graphics engine, many in the R community have found the R graphics engine somewhat inflexible and have written separate device drivers that either emphasize interactivity or plotting in various graphics formats. R base supplies devices for PostScript, PDF, JPEG and other formats. Devices on CRAN include cairoDevice which is a device based libcairo, which can actually render to many device types. The cairo device is desgned to work with RGTK2, which is an interface to the Gimp Tool Kit, similar to pyGTK2. GDD provides device drivers for several bitmap formats, including GIF and BMP. RSvgDevice is an SVG device driver and interfaces well with with vector drawing programs, or R web development packages, such as Rpad. When SVG devices are for web display developers should be aware that internet explorer does not support SVG, but has their own standard. Trust Microsoft. rgl provides a device driver based on OpenGL, and is good for 3D and interactive development. Lastly, the Augsburg group supplies a set of packages that includes a Java-based device, JavaGD.
- Colors : The package colorspace provides a set of functions for transforming between color spaces and mixcolor() for mixing colors within a color space. Based on the HCL colors provided in colorspace, vcdprovides a set of functions for choosing color palettes suitable for coding categorical variables ( rainbow_hcl()) and numerical information ( sequential_hcl(), diverge_hcl()). Similar types of palettes are provided in RColorBrewer and dichromat is focused on palettes for color-impaired viewers.
- Interactive Graphics : There are several efforts to implement interactive graphics systems that interface well with R. In an interactive system the user can interactively query the graphics on the screen with the mouse, or a moveable brush to zoom, pan and query on the device as well as link with other views of the data. rggobi embeds the GGobi interactive graphics system within R, so that one can display a data frame or several in GGobi directly from R. The package has functions to support longitudinal data, and graphs using GGobi’s edge set functionality. The RoSuDA repository maintained and developed by the University of Augsburg group has two packages, iplots and iwidgets as well as their Java development environment including a Java device, JavaGD. Their interactive graphics tools contain functions for alpha blending, which produces darker shading around areas with more data. This is exceptionally useful for parallel coordinate plots where many lines can quickly obscure patterns. playwith has facilities for building interactive versions of R graphics using the cairoDevice and RGtk2. Lastly, the rgl package has mechanisms for interactive manipulation of plots, especially 3D rotations and surfaces.
- Development : For development of specialized graphics packages in R, grid should probably be the first consideration for any new plot type. rgl has better tools for 3D graphics, since the device is interactive, though it can be slow. An alternative is to use Java and the Java device in the RoSuDA packages, though Java has its own drawbacks. For porting plotting code to grid, using the package gridBase presents a nice intermediate step to embed base graphics in grid graphics and vice versa.
- CRAN Task View: Machine Learning & Statistical Learning (cran.r-project.org)
- The R-Files: Dirk Eddlebuettel (revolutionanalytics.com)
- R Commander Plugins-20 and growing! (decisionstats.com)
- R Node- and other Web Interfaces to R (decisionstats.com)
- Packages for By-Group Processing in R (revolutionanalytics.com)
- R ready to Deduce you (ekonometrics.blogspot.com)
lowered the threshold for our volume based discounts from 50 terabytes to 1 terabyte, extending volume pricing discounts to more customers. Here’s a summary of the changes:
First 1TB $0.150 $0.140
Next 49TB $0.150 $0.125
Next 50TB $0.140 $0.110
Next 400TB $0.130 $0.110
Next 500TB $0.105 $0.095
Next 4000TB $0.080 $0.080 (no change)
Over 5000TB $0.055 $0.055 (no change)
These prices apply to Amazon S3 Standard storage in the US-Standard, EU-West, and AP-East regions. The new lower prices for the US-West region and Reduced Redundancy Storage can be found on the Amazon S3 Detail Page.
- Amazon Slashes AWS S3 Prices Up To 19% (techcrunch.com)
- What Can I Say? Another Amazon S3 Price Reduction! (aws.typepad.com)
- How to host a Municipal Election Website for $2.44 (ruk.ca)
- Servers for Nothing, Bits for Free (aws.typepad.com)
- Free Amazon AWS (i-programmer.info)
Amazon EC2 and company announced a free year long tier for new users-you cant beat free :)
AWS Free Usage Tier
To help new AWS customers get started in the cloud, AWS is introducing a new free usage tier. Beginning November 1, new AWScustomers will be able to run a free Amazon EC2 Micro Instance for a year, while also leveraging a new free usage tier for Amazon S3, Amazon Elastic Block Store, Amazon Elastic Load Balancing, and AWSdata transfer. AWS’s free usage tier can be used for anything you want to run in the cloud: launch new applications, test existing applications in the cloud, or simply gain hands-on experience with AWS.
Below are the highlights of AWS’s new free usage tiers. All are available for one year (except Amazon SimpleDB, SQS, and SNS which are free indefinitely):
AWS’s free usage tier startsNovember 1, 2010. A valid creditcard is required to sign up.
See offer terms.
- 750 hours of Amazon EC2 Linux Micro Instance usage (613 MB of memory and 32-bit and 64-bit platform support) – enough hours to run continuously each month
- 750 hours of an Elastic Load Balancer plus 15 GB data processing*
- 10 GB of Amazon Elastic Block Storage, plus 1 million I/Os, 1 GB of snapshot storage, 10,000 snapshot Get Requests and 1,000 snapshot Put Requests
- 5 GB of Amazon S3 storage, 20,000 Get Requests, and 2,000 Put Requests
- 30 GB per of internet data transfer (15 GB of data transfer “in” and 15 GB of data transfer “out” across all services except Amazon CloudFront)
- 25 Amazon SimpleDB Machine Hours and 1 GB of Storage
- 100,000 Requests of Amazon Simple Queue Service
- 100,000 Requests, 100,000 HTTP notifications and 1,000 email notifications for Amazon Simple Notification Service
In addition to these services, the AWS Management Console is available at no charge to help you build and manage your application on AWS.
* These free tiers are only available to new AWS customers and are available for 12 months following your AWSsign-up date. When your free usage expires or if your application use exceeds the free usage tiers, you simply pay standard, pay-as-you-go service rates (see each service page for full pricing details). Restrictions apply; see offer terms for more details.
** These free tiers do not expire after 12 months and are available to both existing and new AWS customers indefinitely.
The new AWS free usage tier applies to participating services across all AWS regions: US – N. Virginia, US – N. California, EU – Ireland, and APAC – Singapore. Your free usage is calculated each month across all regions and automatically applied to your bill – free usage does not accumulate.
- Amazon announce free web services (edugeek.net)
- Try out Amazon EC2 (zdnet.com)
- developers and businesses can now apply for a free EC2 [Elastic Cloud 2] usage tier to use for a full year (robbiz1978.blogspot.com)
- Amazon Introduces New ‘Free Usage Tier’ For AWS (techcrunch.com)