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A common example in business analytics data is to take a random sample of a very large dataset, to test your analytics code. Note most business analytics datasets are data.frame ( records as rows and variables as columns) in structure or database bound.This is partly due to a legacy of traditional analytics software.
Here is how we do it in R-
• Refering to parts of data.frame rather than whole dataset.
Using square brackets to reference variable columns and rows
The notation dataset[i,k] refers to element in the ith row and jth column.
The notation dataset[i,] refers to all elements in the ith row .or a record for a data.frame
The notation dataset[,j] refers to all elements in the jth column- or a variable for a data.frame.
For a data.frame dataset
> nrow(dataset) #This gives number of rows
> ncol(dataset) #This gives number of columns
An example for corelation between only a few variables in a data.frame.
Splitting a dataset into test and control.
ts.test=dataset2[1:200] #First 200 rows
ts.control=dataset2[201:275] #Next 75 rows
Random sampling enables us to work on a smaller size of the whole dataset.
use sample to create a random permutation of the vector x.
Suppose we want to take a 5% sample of a data frame with no replacement.
Let us create a dataset ajay of random numbers
#This is the kind of code line that frightens most MBAs!!
Note we use the round function to round off values.
This is a typical business data scenario when we want to select only a few records to do our analysis (or test our code), but have all the columns for those records. Let us assume we want to sample only 5% of the whole data so we can run our code on it
Then the number of rows in the new object will be 0.05*nrow(ajay).That will be the size of the sample.
The new object can be referenced to choose only a sample of all rows in original object using the size parameter.
We also use the replace=FALSE or F , to not the same row again and again. The new_rows is thus a 5% sample of the existing rows.
Then using the square backets and ajay[new_rows,] to get-
You can change the percentage from 5 % to whatever you want accordingly.
SAS Institute has release it’s financials for 2011 at http://www.sas.com/news/preleases/2011financials.html,
Revenue surged across all solution and industry categories. Software to detect fraud saw a triple-digit jump. Revenue from on-demand solutions grew almost 50 percent. Growth from analytics and information management solutions were double digit, as were gains from customer intelligence, retail, risk and supply chain solutions
AJAY- and as a private company it is quite nice that they are willing to share so much information every year.
The graphics are nice ( and the colors much better than in 2010) , but pie-charts- seriously dude there is no way to compare how much SAS revenue is shifting across geographies or even across industries. So my two cents is – lose the pie charts, and stick to line graphs please for the share of revenue by country /industry.
In 2011, SAS grew staff 9.2 percent and reinvested 24 percent of revenue into research and development
AJAY- So that means 654 million dollars spent in Research and Development. I wonder if SAS has considered investing in much smaller startups (than it’s traditional strategy of doing all research in-house and completely acquiring a smaller company)
Even a small investment of say 5-10 million USD in open source , or even Phd level research projects could greatly increase the ROI on that.
Analyzing a private company’s financials are much more fun than a public company, and I remember the words of my finance professor ( “dig , dig”) to compare 2011 results with 2010 results.
The percentage invested in R and D is exactly the same (24%) and the percentages of revenue earned from each geography is exactly the same . So even though revenue growth increased from 5.2 % to 9% in 2011, both the geographic spread of revenues and share R&D costs remained EXACTLY the same.
The Americas accounted for 46 percent of total revenue; Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA) 42 percent; and Asia Pacific 12 percent.
Overall, I think SAS remains a 35% market share (despite all that noise from IBM, SAS clones, open source) because they are good at providing solutions customized for industries (instead of just software products), the market for analytics is not saturated (it seems to be growing faster than 12% or is it) , and its ability to attract and retain the best analytical talent (which in a non -American tradition for a software company means no stock options, job security, and great benefits- SAS remains almost Japanese in HR practices).
In 2010, SAS grew staff by 2.4 percent, in 2011 SAS grew staff by 9 percent.
But I liked the directional statement made here-and I think that design interfaces, algorithmic and computational efficiencies should increase analytical time, time to think on business and reduce data management time further!
“What would you do with the extra time if your code ran in two minutes instead of five hours?” Goodnight challenged.
some questions in my Mind as I struggle to bet my money and pension savings on Facebook IPO
1) Revenue Mix- What percentage of revenues for Facebook come from Banner ads versus gaming partners like Zynga. How dependent is Facebook on Gaming partners. (Zynga has Google as an investor). What mix of revenue is dependent on privacy regulation countries like Europe vs countries like USA.
2) Do 800 million users of Facebook mean 100 billion valuation ? Thats a valuation of $125 in customer life time in terms of NPV . Since ad revenue is itself a percentage of actual good and services sold- how much worth of goods and services do consumers have to buy per capita , to give $125 worth of ads to FB. Eg . companies spend 5% of product cost on Facebook ads, so does that mean each FB account will hope to buy 2500$ worth of Goods from the Internet and from Facebook (assuming they also buy from Amazon etc)
3) Corporate Governance- Unlike Google, Facebook has faced troubling questions of ethics from the day it has started. This includes charges of intellectual property theft, but also non transparent FB stock option pricing in secondary markets before IPO, private placement by Wall Street Bankers like GoldMan Saachs, major investments by Russian Internet media corporations. (read- http://money.cnn.com/2011/01/03/technology/facebook_goldman/index.htm)
4) Retention of key employees post IPO- Key Employees at Google are actually ex- Microsofties. Key FB staff are ex-Google people. Where will the key -FB people go when bored and rich after IPO.
5) Does the macro Economic Condition justify the premium and Private Equity multiple of Facebook?
Will FB be the next Google (in terms of investor retruns) or will it be like Groupon. I suspect the answer is- it depends on market discounting these assumptions while factoring in sentiment (as well as unloading of stock from large number of FB stock holders on week1).
Baby You Are a Rich Man. but not 100 billion rich. yet. Maybe 80 billion isnt that bad.
What is XBRL and how does it work?
With more than 7,000 new U.S. companies facing extensible business reporting language (XBRL) filing mandates in 2011, Oracle has released a free XBRL extension on top of the latest release of Oracle Database.
Oracle’s XBRL extension leverages Oracle Database 11g Release 2 XML to manage the collection, validation, storage, and analysis of XBRL data. It enables organizations to create one or more back-end XBRL repositories based on Oracle Database, providing secure XBRL storage and query-ability with a set of XBRL-specific services.
In addition, the extension integrates easily with Oracle Business Intelligence Suite Enterprise Edition to provide analytics, plus interactive development environments (IDEs) and design tools for creating and editing XBRL taxonomies.
The Other Side of XBRL
“While the XBRL mandate continues to grow, the feedback we keep hearing from the ‘other side’ of XRBL—regulators, academics, financial analysts, and investors—is that they lack sufficient tools and historic data to leverage the full potential of XBRL,” says John O’Rourke, vice president of product marketing, Oracle.
However, O’Rourke says this is quickly changing as XBRL mandates enter their third year—and more and more companies have to comply. While the new extension should be attractive to organizations that produce XBRL filings, O’Rourke expects it will prove particularly valuable to regulators, stock exchanges, universities, and other organizations that need to collect, analyze, and disseminate XBRL-based filings.
Outsourcing, a Bolt-on Solution, or Integrated XBRL Tagging
Until recently, reporting organizations had to choose between expensive third-party outsourcing or manual, in-house tagging with bolt-on solutions— both of which introduce the possibility of error.
In response, Oracle launched Oracle Hyperion Disclosure Management, which provides an XBRL tagging solution that is integrated with the financial close and reporting process for fast and reliable XBRL report submission—without relying on third-party providers. The solution enables organizations to
- Author regulatory filings in Microsoft Office and “hot link” them directly to financial reporting systems so they can be easily updated
- Graphically perform XBRL tagging at several levels—within Microsoft Office, within EPM system reports, or in the data source metadata
- Modify or extend XBRL taxonomies before the mapping process, as well as set up multiple taxonomies
- Create and validate final XBRL instance documents before submission
- XBRL – The Global Standard for Electronic Reporting (newswire.ca)
- Basics of XBRL (cleanclouds.wordpress.com)
- How XBRL improves analysis (businessinsider.com)
While sitting in Delhi, India- I sometimes notice that there is one big new worthy gun related incident in the United States every six months (latest incident Gabrielle giffords incident) and the mythical NRA (which seems just as powerful as equally mythical Jewish American or Cuban American lobby ) . As someone who once trained to fire guns (.22 and SLR -rifles actually), comes from a gun friendly culture (namely Punjabi-North Indian), my dad carried a gun sometimes as a police officer during his 30 plus years of service, I dont really like guns (except when they are in a movie). My 3 yr old son likes guns a lot (for some peculiar genetic reason even though we are careful not to show him any violent TV or movie at all).
So to settle the whole guns are good- guns are bad thing I turned to the one resource -Internet
Here are some findings-
1) A lot of hard statistical data on guns is biased by the perspective of the writer- it reminds me of the old saying Lies, True lies and Statistics.
2) There is not a lot of hard data in terms of a universal research which can be quoted- unlike say lung cancer is caused by cigarettes- no broad research which can be definitive in this regards.
3) American , European and Asian attitudes on guns actually seem a function of historical availability , historic crime rates and cultural propensity for guns.
Switzerland and United States are two extreme outlier examples on gun causing violence causal statistics.
4) Lot of old and outdated data quoted selectively.
It seems you can fudge data about guns in the following ways-
1) Use relative per capita numbers vis a vis aggregate numbers
2) Compare and contrast gun numbers with crime numbers selectively
3) Remove drill down of type of firearm- like hand guns, rifles, automatic, semi automatic
Maybe I am being simplistic-but I found it easier to list credible data sources on guns than to summarize all assumptions on guns. Are guns good or bad- i dont know -it depends? Any research you can quote is welcome.
Data Sources on Guns and Firearms and Crime-
* As of 2009, the United States has a population of 307 million people.
* Based upon surveys, the following are estimates of private firearm ownership in the U.S. as of 2010:
|Households With a Gun||Adults Owning a Gun||Adults Owning a Handgun|
|Number||47-53 million||70-80 million||40-45 million|
* A 2005 nationwide Gallup poll of 1,012 adults found the following levels of firearm ownership:
|Category|| Percentage Owning
* In the same poll, gun owners stated they own firearms for the following reasons:
|Protection Against Crime||67%|
|Definition Source Printable version|
Showing latest available data.
|# 1||South Africa:||31,918|
|# 4||United States:||9,369|
|# 8||El Salvador:||1,441|
|# 12||Czech Republic:||181|
|# 16||Costa Rica:||131|
|# 34||Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of:||26|
|= 39||United Kingdom:||14|
|# 42||New Zealand:||10|
Bureau of Justice Statistics
or the brand new website (till 2009) on which I CANNOT get gun crime but can get total
- More Infringements on Our Gun Rights (lewrockwell.com)
- Rep. Giffords Joined 276 Americans that Day Killed or Wounded by Guns (grantlawrence.blogspot.com)
- Myth About Gun Violence (socyberty.com)
- Tell the Arizona Shooting Victims That Guns Don’t Kill (thedailybeast.com)
- Jacob M. Appel: Want a Gun? Get a Prescription! (huffingtonpost.com)
- America and Guns, Once More (nytimes.com)
- Gun Control Timeline: 7 Big Events In The Federal Gun Control Debate (huffingtonpost.com)
- After Tucson: Why Are the Mentally Ill Still Bearing Arms? (time.com)
- Guns (fishofgold.wordpress.com)