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The emerging use of Analytics and Knowledge Discovery in Databases for Cyber Conflict and Trade Negotiations
The blog post is the first in series or articles on cyber conflict and the use of analytics for targeting in both offense and defense in conflict situations.
It covers knowledge discovery in four kinds of databases (so chosen because of perceived importance , sensitivity, criticality and functioning of the geopolitical economic system)-
- Databases on Unique Identity Identifiers- including next generation biometric databases connected to Government Initiatives and Banking, and current generation databases of identifiers like government issued documents made online
- Databases on financial details -This includes not only traditional financial service providers but also online databases with payment details collected by retail product selling corporates like Sony’s Playstation Network, Microsoft ‘s XBox and
- Databases on contact details – including those by offline businesses collecting marketing databases and contact details
- Databases on social behavior- primarily collected by online businesses like Facebook , and other social media platforms.
It examines the role of
voluntary privacy safeguards and government regulations ,
weak cryptographic security of databases,
weakness in balancing marketing ( maximized data ) with privacy (minimized data)
and lastly the role of ownership patterns in database owning corporates
A small distinction between cyber crime and cyber conflict is that while cyber crime focusses on stealing data, intellectual property and information to primarily maximize economic gains
cyber conflict focuses on stealing information and also disrupt effective working of database backed systems in order to gain notional competitive advantages in economics as well as geo-politics. Cyber terrorism is basically cyber conflict by non-state agents or by designated terrorist states as defined by the regulations of the “target” entity. A cyber attack is an offensive action related to cyber-infrastructure (like the Stuxnet worm that disabled uranium enrichment centrifuges of Iran). Cyber attacks and cyber terrorism are out of scope of this paper, we will concentrate on cyber conflicts involving databases.
Some examples are given here-
Types of Knowledge Discovery in -
1) Databases on Unique Identifiers- including biometric databases.
Unique Identifiers or primary keys for identifying people are critical for any intensive knowledge discovery program. The unique identifier generated must be extremely secure , and not liable to reverse engineering of the cryptographic hash function.
For biometric databases, an interesting possibility could be determining the ethnic identity from biometric information, and also mapping relatives. Current biometric information that is collected is- fingerprint data, eyes iris data, facial data. A further feature could be adding in voice data as a part of biometric databases.
This is subject to obvious privacy safeguards.
For example, Google recently unveiled facial recognition to unlock Android 4.0 mobiles, only to find out that the security feature could easily be bypassed by using a photo of the owner.
Example of Biometric Databases
In Afghanistan more than 2 million Afghans have contributed iris, fingerprint, facial data to a biometric database. In India, 121 million people have already been enrolled in the largest biometric database in the world. More than half a million customers of the Tokyo Mitsubishi Bank are are already using biometric verification at ATMs.
Examples of Breached Online Databases
In 2011, Playstation Network by Sony (PSN) lost data of 77 million customers including personal information and credit card information. Additionally data of 24 million customers were lost by Sony’s Sony Online Entertainment. The websites of open source platforms like SourceForge, WineHQ and Kernel.org were also broken into 2011. Even retailers like McDonald and Walgreen reported database breaches.
The role of cyber conflict arises in the following cases-
Databases are online for accessing and authentication by proper users. Databases can be breached remotely by non-owners ( or “perpetrators”) non with much lesser chance of intruder identification, detection and penalization by regulators, or law enforcers (or “protectors”) than offline modes of intellectual property theft.
Databases are valuable to external agents (or “sponsors”) subsidizing ( with finance, technology, information, motivation) the perpetrators for intellectual property theft. Databases contain information that can be used to disrupt the functioning of a particular economy, corporation (or “ primary targets”) or for further chain or domino effects in accessing other data (or “secondary targets”)
Loss of data is more expensive than enhanced cost of security to database owners
Loss of data is more disruptive to people whose data is contained within the database (or “customers”)
So the role play for different people for these kind of databases consists of-
1) Customers- who are in the database
2) Owners -who own the database. They together form the primary and secondary targets.
3) Protectors- who help customers and owners secure the databases.
1) Sponsors- who benefit from the theft or disruption of the database
2) Perpetrators- who execute the actual theft and disruption in the database
The use of topic models and LDA is known for making data reduction on text, and the use of data visualization including tied to GPS based location data is well known for investigative purposes, but the increasing complexity of both data generation and the sophistication of machine learning driven data processing makes this an interesting area to watch.
The next article in this series will cover-
the kind of algorithms that are currently or being proposed for cyber conflict, the role of non state agents , and what precautions can knowledge discovery in databases practitioners employ to avoid breaches of security, ethics, and regulation.
- Michael A. Vatis , CYBER ATTACKS DURING THE WAR ON TERRORISM: A PREDICTIVE ANALYSIS Dartmouth College (Institute for Security Technology Studies).
- From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases Usama Fayyad, Gregory Piatetsky-Shapiro, and Padhraic Smyt
As a person trained , deployed and often asked to comment on macroeconomic shenanigans- I have the following observations to make on the downgrade of US Debt by S&P
1) Credit rating is both a mathematical exercise of debt versus net worth as well as intention to repay. Given the recent deadlock in United States legislature on debt ceiling, it is natural and correct to assume that holding US debt is slightly more risky in 2011 as compared to 2001. That means if the US debt was AAA in 2001 it sure is slightly more risky in 2011.
2) Politicians are criticized the world over in democracies including India, UK and US. This is natural , healthy and enforced by checks and balances by constitution of each country. At the time of writing this, there are protests in India on corruption, in UK on economic disparities, in US on debt vs tax vs spending, Israel on inflation. It is the maturity of the media as well as average educational level of citizenry that amplifies and inflames or dampens sentiment regarding policy and business.
3) Conspicuous consumption has failed both at an environmental and economic level. Cheap debt to buy things you do not need may have made good macro economic sense as long as the things were made by people locally but that is no longer the case. Outsourcing is not all evil, but it sure is not a perfect solution to economics and competitiveness. Outsourcing is good or outsourcing is bad- well it depends.
4) In 1944 , the US took debt to fight Nazism, build atomic power and generally wage a lot of war and lots of dual use inventions. In 2004-2010 the US took debt to fight wars in Iraq, Afghanistan and bail out banks and automobile companies. Some erosion in the values represented by a free democracy has taken place, much to the delight of authoritarian regimes (who have managed to survive Google and Facebook).
5) A Double A rating is still quite a good rating. Noone is moving out of the US Treasuries- I mean seriously what are your alternative financial resources to park your government or central bank assets, euro, gold, oil, rare earth futures, metals or yen??
6) Income disparity as a trigger for social unrest in UK, France and other parts is an ominous looming threat that may lead to more action than the poor maths of S &P. It has been some time since riots occured in the United States and I believe in time series and cycles especially given the rising Gini coefficients .
- 1929: 45.0 (estimated)
- 1947: 37.6 (estimated)
- 1967: 39.7 (first year reported)
- 1968: 38.6 (lowest index reported)
- 1970: 39.4
- 1980: 40.3
- 1990: 42.8
- (Recalculations made in 1992 added a significant upward shift for later values)
- 2000: 46.2
- 2005: 46.9
- 2006: 47.0 (highest index reported)
- 2007: 46.3
- 2008: 46.69
- 2009: 46.8
7) Again I am slightly suspicious of an American Corporation downgrading the American Governmental debt when it failed to reconcile numbers by 2 trillion and famously managed to avoid downgrading Lehman Brothers. What are the political affiliations of the S &P board. What are their backgrounds. Check the facts, Watson.
The Chinese government should be concerned if it is holding >1000 tonnes of Gold and >1 trillion plus of US treasuries lest we have a third opium war (as either Gold or US Treasuries will burst)
. Opium in 1850 like the US Treasuries in 2010 have no inherent value except for those addicted to them.
8 ) Ron Paul and Paul Krugman are the two extremes of economic ideology in the US.
Reminds me of the old saying- Robbing Peter to pay Paul. Both the Pauls seem equally unhappy and biased.
I have to read both WSJ and NYT to make sense of what actually is happening in the US as opinionated journalism has managed to elbow out fact based journalism. Do we need analytics in journalism education/ reporting?
9) Panic buying and selling would lead to short term arbitrage positions. People like W Buffet made more money in the crash of 2008 than people did in the boom years of 2006-7
If stocks are cheap- buy. on the dips. Acquire companies before they go for IPOs. Go buy your own stock if you are sitting on a pile of cash. Buy some technology patents in cloud , mobile, tablet and statistical computing if you have a lot of cash and need to buy some long term assets.
10) Follow all advice above at own risk and no liability to this author ;)
Using Google RealTime, a small icon on the left margin, you can monitor the latest uprisings. Apparently you can still get shot in most of the world to ask for freedom. What a trillion dollars of industrial arms complex could not do in Iraq or Afghanistan, hackers at Wikileaks, Bloggers in Middle East and Media people at Al Jazzera are doing right now. I am probably too young in 1989 when communists fell, but watching dictators fall by people power than external arms is good, no.
Now if only a few more people could listen to some Chinese Democracy
- Live Q&A: Middle East protests (guardian.co.uk)
- Uprisings in Tunisia, Yemen, Egypt — America Is Paying the Price for Supporting Corrupt Dictatorships in the Muslim World | | AlterNet (indigenist.blogspot.com)
- -Middle East in Crisis: Yemen Joins Tunisia and Egypt (answersforthefaith.com)
- Arab Pundits Cheer the Tunisia, Egypt Protests (thedailybeast.com)
- Anti-government protests swell from Egypt to Yemen (seattletimes.nwsource.com)
- “Egypt and Yemen can benefit from Tonyâ€™s experience” and related posts (chickyog.net)
- Uprisings in Tunisia, Yemen, Egypt — America Is Paying the Price for Supporting Corrupt Dictatorships in the Muslim World (alternet.org)
- -Middle East Crisis Continues: Now Jordan Under Pressure (answersforthefaith.com)
- Popular Protests Spread To Jordan (outsidethebeltway.com)
- Live Q&A: Middle East protests – The Guardian (news.google.com)
Here is a list of cartoonists I follow- I sometimes think they make more sense than all the news media combined.
I love his political satire-sometimes not his politics- though he is a liberal (surprisingly most people from creative arts tend to be liberal- guess because they support and need welfare more, :) ) Since I am in India- I call myself a conservative (when filing taxes) or liberal (when drinking er tea)
2) Hugh Mcleod- of Gaping Void is very different from Mike above, in the way an abstract painter would be from a classical
artist. I like his satire on internet, technology and personal favorite – social media consultants. Hugh casts a critical eye on the world of tech and is an immensely successful artist- probably the Andy Warhol of this genre in a generation.
3) Doug Savage of Savage Chickens http://www.savagechickens.com/ has a great series of funny cartoons based on chickens drawn on Post it notes. While his drawing is less abstract than Hugh’s above, he sometimes touches an irreverent note more like Hugh than anyone else.
5) Scott Adams of Dilbert http://www.dilbert.com/ is probably the first “non kid stuff” cartoonist I started reading-in fact I once wrote to him asking for advice on my poetry to his credit- he replied with a single ” Best of Luck email”
They named our email server in Lucknow, UP, India for him (in my business school at http://iiml.ac.in ) Probably the best of corporate toon humor. Maybe they should make the Dilbert movie yet.
6) Randall Munroe of xkcd.com
XKCD is geek cartooning at its best.
For catching up with the best toons in a week, the best is Time.com ‘s weekly list at http://www.time.com/time/cartoonsoftheweek
It is the best collection of political cartoons.
- An Obama Presidency May Be Rough Going for Political Cartoonists [Obama Era] (gawker.com)
- Palling Around With Monuments [This Thing Looks Like That Thing] (gawker.com)
- the microaudience: the mot likely way to make money on the internet (gapingvoid.com)
- Cartoon(ist) of the Week – Joel Pett (underthelobsterscope.wordpress.com)
- Sweden suicide bombings: I’m a constant target, says cartoonist – Telegraph.co.uk (news.google.com)
- Indy cartoonist elated to find torrents of his work (boingboing.net)
- Six Cartoonists Tour Afghanistan w/USO (waronterrornews.typepad.com)
- Dilbert & Medicine (ivor-kovic.com)
- Nigerian Cartoonist Tayo Fatunla (theworld.org)
Here is a Data Visualization graphic from Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff showing the clear way for Afghanistan.
Reminds me of the quote mistakenly attributed to Shakespeare-
Oh what a tangled web ( ^+^) we weave
When first we practice to deceive. – Sir Walter Scott (Marmion, 1808)